Influence of water hardness on functional and sensory quality of cold infused robusta coffee leaf tea

Kiki Fibrianto, Sudarminto Setyo Yuwono, Devy Sekarlianty


Cold infused technique is one of the brewing methods that potentially able to preserve coffee leaf tea functional properties. It is mainly attributed to the absence of heat treatment during its processes.  However, without involving heat, the sensory quality of cold brewing tea is generally weak. To overcome this issue, it was hypothesized that water quality used for the brewing is important to govern optimum functional properties of Robusta coffee leaf tea and at the same time to maintain its sensory quality. In this current study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied by implementing Box-Behnken Design (BBD) to optimize both total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity by modifying length and temperature of cold brewing as well as its water and coffee leaf powder ratio.  There were 3 different commercial drinking water used for brewing to represent 3 different hardness level of water. All optimum brewed coffee leaf tea was then sensorially evaluated by Rate All That Apply (RATA) method. It was found that level of water hardness is positively correlated to TPC but negatively correlated to brewing temperature as well as water and coffee leaf powder ratio. It was also found that the higher level of water hardness, both fruity and marine aroma tended to be more intense (p-value<0.05). Meanwhile the lower level of water hardness tended to enhance sweet aroma and astringent mouth-feel (p-value<0.05) of cold infused coffee leaf tea.


Cold infused; Robusta coffee leaf tea; Water hardness

Full Text:



Ahda, M. (2013) ‘Ethanol conceration effect of mangoesten pell extract to total phenol content’, Jurnal Eksakta, 14(2), pp. 62-70

Ares, G., Bruzzone, F., Vidal, L., Cadena, R. S., Giménez, A., Pineau, B., Hunter, D. C., Paisley, A. G., Jaeger, S. R. (2014) ‘Evaluation of a rating-based variant of rate-all-that-apply (RATA)’, Food Quality and Preference, 36, pp. 87-95

Fibrianto K., Ardianti A. D., Pradipta K., Sunarharum W. B. (2018) ‘The influence of brewing water characteristic on sensory perception of pour-over local coffee’, IOP Conference Series.: Earth Environmental Sciences, 102, pp. 1-11

Fibrianto, K., Daryanto, K.A., Sholihah, N., Wahibah, L.Y., Hasytai, N., Al-Baarri, A. N., Hariyadi, D. M. (2021) ‘Sensory profiling of robusta and liberica coffee leaf functional tea by modifying brewing temperature’, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Sciences, 475, pp. 1-7

Fibrianto, K., Yuwono, S. S., Hasyati, N. (2021) ‘Just about right analysis of coffee leaf tea bitterness and astringency by modifying brewing temperature and time’, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 672, pp. 1-5

Hariyadi, D. M., Tedja, C. A., Zubaidah, A., Yuwono, S. S., Fibrianto, K. (2020) ‘Optimization of brewing time and temperature for caffeine and tannin levels in dampit coffee leaf tea of robusta (Coffeea canephora) and Liberica (Coffea liberica)’, Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 14, pp. 58-68

Hendon, C, H., Colonna-Dashwood, L., and Colonna-Dashwood, M. (2014) ‘The role of dissolved cations in coffee extraction’, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(21), pp. 4947–4950

Jaimes, E. M. S., Torres, I. B., and Perrez-Villarreal, H. H. (2015) ‘Sensory evaluation of commercial coffee brands in Colombia’, International Journal of Business and System Research, 9(3), pp. 195-213

Jayasri, M. A., and Matthew, R. A. (2009) ‘A report on the antioxidant activity of leaf and rhizomes of Costus pictus D. Don’, Journal of Integrative Biology, 5(1), pp. 20-26

Kirk, M. (2019) Tea-Vitalize: Cold-Brew Teas and Herbal Infusions to Refresh and Rejuvenate. United States: Countryman Press.

Legowo, A. M., Al-Baarri, A. N., Wardani, N., Fibrianto, K. (2021) ‘The influences of storage temperature and time in decocted Robusta coffee leaf tea’, IOP Conferences Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 733, pp. 1-8

Nayeem, N., Gladsy, D., and Mehta, S. K. (2011) ‘Comparative phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of the leaf of coffee arabica and coffee robusta’, Journal Der Pharmacia Lettre, 3(1), pp. 292-297

Sahu, R. K. Kar, M. and Routray, R., (2013) ‘DPPH free radical scavenging activity of some leafy vegetables used by tribals of Odisha, India’, Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 1(4), pp. 21-27

Wellinger, M., Samo S., and Chahan Y. (2016). The SCAE Water Chart Measure Aim Treat. Specialty Coffee Association of Europe. Zfurich University of Applied Science

Yuwono, S.S., Fibrianto, K., Wahibah, L.Y., Wardhana, A.R. (2019) ‘Sensory attributes profiling of Dampit robusta coffee leaf tea (Coffea canephora)’, Carpathian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 11(2), pp. 165-176



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Kiki Fibrianto, STP., M.Phil., Ph.D, Sudarminto Setyo Yuwono

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.