Production and added value of waste cooking oil product derivatives in the Bali Province

Dewa Ayu Anom Yuarini, Ganda Putra, AAPA Suryawan Wiranatha, Luh Putu Wrasiati


Waste cooking oil or waste cooking oil (WCO) is the remaining oil (or by-products) produced during food frying. In 2019, the cooking oil consumption in Bali Province was 4,735,057 L/month and the WCO produced was estimated about 3,314,540 L/month. The Government of Bali plans to manage WCO in an integrated manner WCO in an integrated manner by processing it as derivative products with economic value. The study  aimed to transform WCO into high-value added products (i.e. aromatherapy candles, liquid soap, and biodiesel), and to analyze their economy valued added. The Hayami method was used to determine the economyvalue added  of each product. The results showed that WCO was most widely used in producing biodiesel (84%), candle (17%), and liquid soap (10%). Based on the Hayami method, the added value from candle products was IDR. 4,838 / kg (or added value ratio of 9.68%),  was classified as a low added product. The added value of liquid soap was IDR 8,495/kg (or added value ratio of 47.38%), classified as a high added value product.  While,  biodiesel products generating the added value of IDR 2,363/kg (or added value ratio of 25.57%), classified as a  medium added value product.


Added value; Biodiesel; Candles; Liquid soap; Waste cooking oil

Full Text:



Abdulbari, H. A., Yunus., R. M., Abudrrahman., N. H., and Nizam, M. K. (2011) ‘Lubricating grease from spent bleaching earth and waste cooking oil: tribology properties’, International Journal of the Physical Sciences, 6(20), pp. 4695-4699

Aji, V. P., Yudhistira., R., and Sutopo, W. (2018) ‘Analysis of the added value of Lemuru fish processing using Hayami method’, Journal of Industrial Engineering, 17(1), pp. 56 – 61

Alamsyah, R., Hartanto, E. S., and Mardiah. (2009) ’The effect of use chitosan in difference of concentration for formulation of skin lotion’, Journal of Agro-Based Industry, 26 (1), pp. 31-39

Arnata, I. W., Yoga., I. W. G. S., and Harsojuwono, B. A. (2017) ‘Physical and thermal characteristics of solid bioethanol’, Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy, 7(5), pp. 14-22

A.O.A.C. (1990). Official methods of analysis. 15th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington DC.

Bali Provincial Statistics Agency. (2019) Amount of tourists to Bali by month. Available at : (Accessed: 4 October 2019) [In Indonesian]

Bali Provincial Statistics Agency. (2019) Monthly average expenditure per capitaof food item. Available at : (Accessed: 4 October 2019) [In Indonesian]

National Standaridization Agency. (1996) Standard of liquid soap. SNI 06-4085-1996. National Standardization Council, Jakarta. [In Indonesian]

National Standaridization Agency. (2015) Standard of biodiesel. SNI 7182:2015. National Standardization Council, Jakarta. [In Indonesian]

Caruntu, C., and Lapadusi, M. L. (2012) ‘Methods used in determining the value added used in the assesment of the company’s real economic power’, Annals of the University of Petroşani, Economics, 12(1), pp. 33-48

Cavitch, S. M. (2001) Choosing your oils, oil properties of fatty acid. Available at (Accessed 12 December 2019)

Chrysikou, L.P., Dagonikou., V., Dimitriadis, A., and Bezergianni, S. (2019) ‘Waste cooking oils exploitation targeting EU 2020 diesel fuel production: Environmental and economic benefits’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 219, pp. 566–575

European Waste Catalogue, Code Number 20 01 25. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2020)

Farouk, H., Husien., A., Ali., H., and Osama, S. (2016) ‘Production and analysis of characteristics of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil’, University of Khartoum Engineering Journal, 6(2), pp. 14-21

French, R. J., and Czernik, S. (2003) Hydrogen Production By Steam Reforming Of Waste Vegetable Oils. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Prepr. Pap.-Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Fuel Chem. 2003, 48(2).

Gerpen, J. V. (2005) ‘Biodiesel processing and production’, Fuel Processing Technology, 86, pp. 1097-1107

Guzialowska-Tic, J. (2013) ‘Description of raw materials for manufacturing candles and grave candles and their influence on the environment’, Chemik Science Technique Market, 67(10), pp. 1007-1010

Hammins, A., and Bundy, M. (2005) ‘Characterization of candle flames’, Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, 15, pp. 265-285

Hayami Y, T. Kawagoe, Y. Morooka, and M. Siregar. (1987) Agricultural Marketing and Processing in Upland Java. A Perspective from a Sunda Village’. Bogor: The CPGRT Centre. (Accessed September 2019)

Hazrat, M. A., Rasul., M. G., Khan., M. K., Ashwath., N., and Rufford, T. E. (2019) ‘Emission characteristics of waste tallow and waste cooking oil based ternary biodiesel fuels’, Energy Procedia, 160, pp. 842–847

Hossain, M. E., Khan., M. I., Ketata., C., and Islam, M. R. (2010) ‘Comparative pathway analysis of paraffin wax and beeswax for industrial applications’, Journal of Characterization and Development of Novel Materials, 1, pp. 1-13

Hubeis, M. (1997) Toward professionals small industry in the area of globalization thourgh empowering industry management. Scientific Oration of Professor from Science of Industrial Management. Faculty of Agricultural Technology Bogor. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor. [In Indonesian]

Jackson, S. (2006) Standar for good reason. Article of Biodiesel Magazine 01 Februari 2006 [Online]. Available at (Accessed: 18 September 2020)

Karmakar, G., Ghosh., P., and Sharma, B. K. (2017) ‘Chemically modifying vegetable oils to prepare green lubricants’, Lubricants, 5(44), pp. 1-17

Magrinya, N., Tres., A., Codony, R., Guardiola, F., Nuchi, C. D., and Bou, R. (2012) ‘Use of recovered frying oils in chicken and rabbit feeds: Effect on the fatty acid and tocol composition and on the oxidation levels of meat, liver and plasma’, Animal, 7, pp. 505–517

Man, K. L., Keat, T. L., and Abdul, R. M. (2010) ‘Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: A review’, Biotechnology Advances, 28(4), pp. 500-518

Mitchual S. J., Mensah, K. F., and Darkwa, N. A. (2014) ‘Evaluation of fuel properties of six tropical hardwood timber species for briquettes’, Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, 4, pp. 1-9.

Nane, E., Imanuel, G. S., and Wardani, M. K. (2016) ‘Utilization of waste oil as an alternative to making candles’, Jurnal KELITBANGAN Inovasi dan Pembangunan Provinsi Lampung, 2(2), pp. 188-198 [In Indonesian]

Naomi, P., Gaol, A. M. L., and Toha, M. Y. (2013) ‘Making soft soap from waste oil in therms of the kinetics of chemical reation’, Jurnal Teknik Kimia, 2(19), pp. 42 – 48 [In Indonesian]

Oktari, S. A. S. E., Wrasiati, L. P., and Wartini, N. M. (2017) ‘The effect oil type and alginate solution concentration to characteristics liquid handsoap’, Jurnal Rekayasa dan Manajemen Agroindustri, 5(2), pp. 47-57 [In Indonesian]

Onuegbu, T. U., Ekpunobi, U. E., Ogbu, I. M., Ekeoma, M. O., and Obumselu, F. O. (2011) ‘Comparative studies of ignition time and water boiling test of coal and biomass briquettes blend’, Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, 7(2), pp. 153-159

Palanisamy, U. D., Sivanathan, M., Radhakrishnan, A. K., Haleagrahara, N., Subramaniam, T., and Chiew, G. S. (2011) ‘An effective ostrich oil bleaching technique using peroxide value as anindicator’, Molecules, 16(7), pp. 5709–5719

Panadare, D. C., and Rathod, V. K. (2015) ‘Applications of waste cooking oil other than biodiesel: a review’, Iranian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 12(3), pp. 55 – 76

Piyali, G., Bhirud, R. G., and Kumar, V. V. (1999) ‘Detergency and foam studies on linear alkylbenzene sulfonate and secondary alkyl sulfonate’, Journal of Surfactant and Detergen, 2(4), pp. 489-493

Rahadianti, E. S., Yerizam., and Martha (2018) ‘Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil’, Indonesian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Chemistry, 3(3), pp. 77 – 82

Ray, S. K., and Prakash, O. (2019) ‘Biodiesel extracted from waste vegetable oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine: performance evaluation of kirlosker 5 kW engine’ In (eds.) Renewable Energy and its Innovative Technologies. Singapore: Springer, pp. 219-229

Rezaei, K., Wang., T., and Johnson, L. A. (2002) ‘Hydrogenated vegetabale oils as candle wax’, Journal of The American Oils Chemists, 79(12), pp.1241-1247

Sanaguano-salguero, H., Tigre-Leon, A., and Bayas-morejon, I. F. (2018) ‘Use of waste cooking oil in the manufacture of soap’, Ecology and Development Journal, 3(1), pp. 2 – 11

Sari, R., and Ferdinan, A. (2017) ‘Antibacterial activity assay of the liquid soap from the extract of aloe vera leaf peel’, Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research Journal, 4(3), pp. 111-120

Tsoutsos, T., Tournaki., S., Gkouskos, Z., Paraíba, O., Giglio, F., García, P. Q., Braga, J., Adrianos, H., and Filice, M. (2019) ‘Quality characteristics of biodiesel produced from used cooking oil in Southern Europe’, Journal of Chemical Engineering, 3(19), pp. 1-13

Wahyuni, S., Ramli, and Mahrizal (2015) ‘The effect of temperature and duration deposition to quality of biodisel from waste oil’, Pillar of Physics, 6(2015), pp. 33-40 [In Indonesian]

Widyaningsih, S., Chasani, M., Diastuti, H., and Fredyon, W. N. (2018) ‘Liquid soap from nyamplung seed oil (Calophyllum inophyllum L) with ketapang (Terminalia catappa L) as antioxidant and Cardamom (Amomum compactum) as fragrance’, Molekul, 13(2), pp. 172 –179 [In Indonesian]



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Dewa Ayu Anom Yarini, Ganda Putra, AAPA Suryawan Wiranatha, Luh Putu Wrasiati

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.