The effect of lesser yam tuber flour (Dioscorea esculenta) and cooking methods on meat analogue chemical and textural properties

Widya Karina Wijono, Teti Estiasih


The addition of carbohydrates on gluten meat analogue has the potency to improve texture, such as lesser yam flour. It can be processed by steaming and baking. This study aimed to determine, analyze, evaluate the effect of cooking methods (steaming and baking) and substitution of lesser yam tuber flour (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%) on the texture of meat analogue and chemical properties only for the best meat analogue. This study used Randomized Block Design, Nested Design of 3 replications with 2 factors, levels of lesser yam tuber flour nested in cooking methods. The texture of meat analogue was compared to beef texture. The results showed that the cooking method affected hardness and cohesiveness significantly. The substitution of lesser yam tuber flour significantly affected hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewability. The best steamed meat analogue was at 5% substitution level of lesser yam tuber flour, contain of 49.79% moisture content, 28.39% protein, 17.04% carbohydrates, 2.57% ash, 2.21% fat and red grayish color. The best baked meat analogue was at 0% substitution level of lesser yam tuber flour, contain of 48.64% moisture content, 29.87% protein, 16.89% carbohydrates, 2.60% ash, 2.00% fat and red grayish color. The steamed meat analogue was more similar to beef, than the baked meat analogue. This production of a meat analogue would be suitable as a simple household-scale meat substituent.


Cooking Methods; Chemical Properties; Lesser Yam Tuber Flour; Meat Analogue; Textural Properties; Vital Wheat Gluten

Full Text:



Angelis, D. D., Kaleda, A., Pasqualone, A., Vaikma, H., Tamm, M., Tammik, M. L., Squeo, G., and Summo, C. (2020) ‘Physicochemical and sensorial evaluation of meat analogues produced from dry-fractionated pea and oat protein’, Foods, 9(12), pp. 1754

AOAC (2005) Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 18th ed. Gaithersburg: AOAC International.

Bakar, J., Rahman, R. A., Saeed, M. A. E., and Karim, R. (2009) ‘Protein-starch interaction and their effect on thermal and rheological characteristics of a food system: A review‘, Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, 7(2), pp. 169-174

Barak, S., Mudgil D., and Khatkar, B. S. (2014) ‘Influence of gliadin and glutenin fractions on rheological, pasting, and textural properties of dough’, International Journal of Food Properties, 17(7), pp. 1428-1438

Chandra, M. V., and Shamasundar, B. A. (2015) ‘Texture profile analysis and functional properties of gelatin from the skin of three species of fresh water fish’, International Journal of Food Properties, 18(3), pp. 572-584

Datta, A. K., and Rakesh, V. (2013) ‘Principles of microwave combination heating’, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 12(1), pp. 24-39

Day, L., and Golding, M. (2016) ‘Food structure, rheology and texture’, Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry, 3, pp. 125-129

Duma-Kocan, P., Rudy, M., Gil, M., and Stanislawczyk, R. (2020) ‘The influence of temperature differences in smoking chamber and furnace and smoking time on the quality of medium-ground sausage’, Molecules, 25(23), pp. 1-10

Eliasson, A. C. (1996) Carbohydrates in food. New York City: Marcel Dekker.

Ganjyal, G. M. (2020) Extrusion cooking: cereal grains processing. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing.

Gerhardt, C., ZiemBen, F., Warschun, M., Suhlmann G, Donnan, D., and Kühnle, H. J. (2019). A.T. Kearney: how will cultured meat and meat alternatives disrupt the agricultural and food industry. [Online]. Available at 1 559860712714. (Accessed: July 10, 2020)

Guiné, R. P. F. (2018) ‘The drying of foods and its effect on the physical-chemical, sensorial and nutritional properties’, International Journal of Food Engineering, 4(2), pp. 93-100

Harlia, F. (2018) Formulation of Lesser Yam Flour (Dioscore esculenta L.) and Soy Protein Isolate on Meat Analog Production. Thesis. Universitas Jember. Jember. [In Indonesian]

Herlina, Kuswardhani, N., and Widjayanthi, L. (2013) ‘Quality development of bagiak (Osing ethnic’s snack) using gembili (Dioscorea esculenta L.) flour. E3S Web of Conferences, 142, pp. 1-4

Huriawati, F., Yuhanna, W. L., and Mayasari, T. (2016) ‘Pengaruh metode pengeringan terhadap kualitas serbuk seresah Enhalus acoroides dari pantai tawang Pacitan’, Jurnal Bioeksperimen, 2(1), pp. 35-43 [In Indonesian]

International Organization for Standardization. (2008). ISO 5492:2008: Sensory analysis – vocabulary. Geneva: ISO Copyright Office

Kumala, T., Sutrisno A., and Yunianta. (2020) ‘Glucomannan as an anti-staling agent to improve the texture value of whole wheat bread’, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 475, pp. 1-7

Kumar, P. (2014) ‘Role of gluten protein in the food products of living beings and its effect on their body both physicochemical and metabolically reactions’, International Research Journal of Commerce Arts and Science, 5(3), pp. 65-83

Ortolan, F., and Steel C. J. (2017) ‘Protein characteristics that affect the quality of vital wheat gluten to be used in baking: A review’, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 16, pp. 369–381

Parsons, R. (2020) How to make perfect seitan. [Online]. Available at Accessed: June 9, 2021

Patton, B. (2012) The Sexy Vegan Cookbook: Extraordinary from an Ordinary Dude. California: New World Library

Puspitasari, D. (2008) Kajian Substitusi Tapioka dengan Rumput Laut (Eucheuma cottoni) pada Pembuatan Bakso. Thesis. Universitas Sebelas Maret. Surakarta. [In Indonesian]

Rubio, N. R., Xiang, N., and Kaplan, D. L. (2020) ‘Plant-based and cell-based approaches to meat production’, Nature Communication, 11, pp. 1-11

Santo, R. E., Kim, B. F., Goldman, S. E., Dutkiewicz, J., Biehl, E. M. B., Bloem, M. W., Neff, R. A., and Nachman K. E. (2020) ‘Considering plant-based meat substitutes and cell-based meat: A public health and food systems perspective’, Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 4(134), pp. 1-23

Sha, L, and Xiong, Y. L. (2020) ‘Plant protein-based alternatives of reconstructured meat: Science, technology and challenges’, Trends in Food Science & Technology, 102, pp. 51-61

Sullivan, S. (2017) Corned beef seitan. [Online]. Available at https://sarahsvegan Accessed: June 8, 2021

Potter, J. (2015) Cooking for Greeks: Real Science, Great Cooks and Good Food. California: O’Reilly Media

Tristantini, D., and Susanti, A. (2016) ‘Pengaruh penambahan kacang merah, ampas kedelai, dan textured vegetable protein pada kandungan nutrisi dan tekstur daging sapi sintetik’ in Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia “Kejuangan”, UPN Veteran Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, March 17. [In Indonesian]

Wieser, H., Koehler, P., and Scherf, K. A. (2020) Wheat – an exceptional crop: botanical features, chemistry, utilization, nutritional and health aspects. Massachusetts: Woodhead Publishing.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Widya Karina Wijono

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.