The effect of adding rice straw charcoal to the processing of bio-pellet from cacao pod husk

Retno Damayanti, Sandra Sandra, Novita Riski Nanda


Cacao pod husk and rice straw charcoal are potentially transformed into bio-pellet because of their high calorific value. Cocoa pod husk and rice straw charcoal has a calorific value of 4974.837 cal/g and 3569.837 cal/g, respectively. This research aimed to identify the effect of variations in particle size and in the addition ratio of rice straw charcoal on the calorific value of bio-pellet. Randomized block design factorial were employed in this study with factor of the addition ratio of rice straw charcoal and cacao pod husk (i.e.  0%:100%, 20% : 80%, 40% : 60%) and the particle size (i.e. 20, 40, 60 and 80 mesh). The results showed that rice straw charcoal addition resulted bio-pellet with the calorific value of 4111.93 – 4706.57 cal/g, and fulfill the SNI of bio-pellet (SNI 8021-2014). The treatment with addition of 100% cocoa pod husk and 80 mesh particle size generated the superior quality of bio-pellet. The findings confirmed that addition of rice straw charcoal did not enhance the energy potential (i.e. calorific value) of the bio-pellets, hence it is unfavourable option.


Bio-pellet; Cacao pod husk; Calorific value; Rice straw charcoal

Full Text:



Adapa, P.K., Tabil, L.G., and Schoenau, G.J. (2009) ‘Compression characteristics of selected ground agricultural biomass’, Agricultural Engineering International The CIGR Ejournal, XI, pp. 1-19

Artemio, C.P., Maginot, N.H., Serafín, C.U., Rahim, F.P., Guadalupe, R.Q.J., and Fermín, C.M. (2018) ‘Physical, mechanical and energy characterization of wood pellets obtained from three common tropical species’, PeerJ,6:e5504 10.7717/peerj.5504

Bahri, S. (2008) `Pemanfaatan limah industri kayu untuk pembuatan briket arang dalam mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan di Nangroe Aceh Darussalam (Utilization of wood industrial waste for the manufacture of charcoal briquettes in reducing environmental pollution in Nangroe Aceh Darussalam)’, Thesis, Universitas Sumatera Utara. [In


Bantacut, T., Hendra, D., and Nurwigha, R. (2013) ‘Mutu biopellet dari campuran arang dan cangkang sawit (The quality of bio-pellet from combination of palm shell charcoal and palm fiber)’, Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian, 23(1), pp. 1-12 [In Indonesian]

Barazarte, H., Sangronis, E., and Unai, E. (2008), ‘Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) hulls: a posible commercial source of pectins’, Archi-vos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion, 58(1), pp. 64–70

Bartoňová, L. (2015) ‘Unburned carbon from coal combustion ash: An overview’, Fuel Processing Technology, 134 (2015), pp. 136-158

Campos-Vega, R., Nieto-Figueroa, K.H., and Oomah, B.D. (2018) ‘Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) pod husk: Renewable source of bioactive compounds’, Trends in Food Science and Technology, 81(2018), pp. 172-184

Cordeiro, G., Filho, R.D.T., and Fairbairn, E.d.M.R. (2009) ‘Use of ultrafine rice husk ash with high-carbon content as pozzolan in high performance concrete’, Materials and Structures, 42(7), pp. 983–992

Fonkeng E.E. (2014) ‘Cocoa yield evaluation and some important yield factors in small holder Thebroma cacao agroforests in Bokito-Centre Cameroon’, Department of Crop Science, The Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Dschang, Cameroon.

Forero-Nuñez, C.A., Jochum, J., and Sierra, F. (2015) ‘Effect of particle size and addition of cocoa pod husk on the properties of sawdust and coal pellets’, Ingeniería e Investigación, 35(1), pp. 17-23

Hamzah, N., Zandi, M., Tokimatsu, K., and Yoshikawa, K. (2018) `Wood biomass pellet characterization for solid fuel production in power generation’, International Journal of Renewable Energy Sources, 3, pp. 32-40

Harun N.Y., and Afzal M.T. (2016) ‘Effect of particle size on mechanical properties of pellets made from biomass blends’, Procedia engineering, 148, pp. 93-99

Kusumaningrum, W.B., and Munawar, S.S. (2014) ‘Prospect of bio-pellet as an alternative energy to substitute solid fuel based’, Energy Procedia, 47 (2014), pp. 303 – 309

Lee, C.L., San H`ng, P., Paridah, T., Chin, K.L., Khoo, P.S., Nazrin, R.A.R., Asyikin, S.N., and Maminski, M. (2016) ‘Effect of reaction time and temperature on the properties of carbon black made from palm kernel and coconut shell’, Asian Journal of Scientific Research, 10, pp. 24-33

Li, W., Yang, K., Peng, J., and Zhang, L. (2008) ‘Effects of carbonization temperatures on characteristics of porosity in coconut shell chars and activated carbons derived from carbonized coconut shell chars’, Industrial Crops and Products, 28(2), pp. 190-198

Mansaray, K.G., and Ghaly, A.E. (1997) ‘Physical and thermochemical properties of rice husk’, Journal Energy Sources, 19(9), pp. 989-1004

Munawar, S.S., and Subiyanto, B. (2014) ‘Characte-rization of biomass pellet made from solid waste oil palm industry’, Procedia Environ-mental Science, 20, pp. 336-341

Mutiara, A. (2015) Pemanfaatan limbah jerami untuk pembuatan briket dan biopelet (Utilization of rice straw waste for briquettes and biopelets), Bogor: Departemen Fisika. Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam. Institut Pertanian Bogor. [In Indonesian]

Said, N., Daeim, M.M.A., Garcia-Maraver, A., and Zamorano, M. (2015) ‘Influence of densification parameters on quality properties of rice straw pellets’, Fuel Processing Technology, 138(2015), pp. 56-64

Sandra, Damayanti, R., Susilo, B., and Dharmesti, G. (2019) ‘Physical characteristic of biomass pellet from cacao pod husk and banana pod husk’, International Journal on Advanced Science Engineering Information Technology, 9(5), pp. 1670-1675

Sitepu, R.B. (2013) ‘Pemanfaatan jerami sebagaipupuk organik untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan produksi padi (Utilization of rice straw as organic fertilizer to increase rice growth and production)’, Bogor: Departemen Ilmu Tanah dan Sumber Daya Lahan. Fakultas Pertanian. Institut Pertanian Bogor. [In Indonesian]

Sobamiwa, O., and Longe, O.G. (1994) ‘Utilization of cocoa-pod pericarp fractions in broiler chick diets’, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 47(3-4), pp. 237-244

Sunardi, Djuanda, and Mandra, M.A.S. (2019) ‘Characteristic of charcoal briquettes frim agricultural waste with compaction pressure and particle size variation as alternative fuel’, International Energy Journal, 19(2019), pp. 139-148

Ungureanu, N., Vlăduț, V., Paraschiv,G., Ionescu M., Zabava, B.S.T., and Grigore, I. (2016) `Production status of biomass pellets – review’, paper presented to Scientific International Conferences, Craiova, November 2016, XLVI, pp. 574-581

Ungureanu, N., Vladut, V., Voicu, G., Dinca, M.N., and Zabava, B.S. (2018) ‘Influence of biomass moisture content on pellet properties – review’, paper presented to 17th International Scientific Conference Engineering for Rural Develop-ment, pp. 1876-1883

Urbanovičová, O., Krištof, K., Findura, P., Jobbágy, J., and Angelovič, M. (2017) ‘Physical and mechanical properties of briquettes produced from energy plants’, Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 65(1), pp. 219-224

Wibowo, S., and Lestari, N. (2018) ‘Effect of peanut shell torrefaction on qualities of the produced bio-pellet’, Reaktor Chemical Engineering Journal, 18(4), pp. 183-193

Winata, A. (2013) Karakteristik biopelet dari campuran arang sekam padi sebagai bahan bakar alternatif terbarukam (Biopelet characteristics of a mixture of sengon wood dust with rice husk charcoal as a renewable alternative fuel), Bogor: Departemen Hasil Hutan. Fakultas Kehutanan. Institut Pertanian Bogor [In Indonesian].

Zaky, R.R., Hessein, M.M., El-Midany, A.A., Khedr, M.H., Abdel-Aal, E.A., and El-Barawy, K.A. (2008) ‘Preparation of silica nanoparticles from semi-burned rice straw ash’, Powder Technology, 185(1), pp. 31-35



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Retno Damayanti, Sandra Sandra, Novita Riski Nanda

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.